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Literature Review Series

Category Author  
Book N. C. Brady and R. R. Weil N. C. Brady and R. R. Weil. 1996. The Nature and Properties of Soils 960. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Book P. G. Biddle P. G. Biddle. 1998. Tree Root Damage to Buildings. Volume 1: Causes, Diagnosis and Remedy 376. Willowmead Publishing, Ltd, Wantage, UK.
Book D. F. Cutler and I. B. K. Richardson D. F. Cutler and I. B. K. Richardson. 1989. Tree Roots and Buildings 71. Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, Essex, England.
Book D. F. Cutler and P. J. Rudall and P. E. Gasson and R. M. O. Gale D. F. Cutler and P. J. Rudall and P. E. Gasson and R. M. O. Gale. 1987. Root identification manual of trees and shrubs: A guide to the anatomy of roots of trees and shrubs hardy in Britain and Northern Europe 245. Chapman and Hall, London.
Report 2008. Managing Stormwater for Urban Sustainability Using Trees and Structural Soils 63. ed. S. D. Day and S. B. Dickinson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA.
Book R. W. Harris and J. Clark and N. M. Matheny R. W. Harris and J. Clark and N. M. Matheny. 1999. Arboriculture: the integrated management of trees, shrubs, and vines. 3rd Ed. 687. Prentice-Hall, Engelwoods Cliffs, NJ.
Book A. L. Shigo A. L. Shigo. 1986. A New Tree Biology Dictionary 132. Shigo and Trees, Associates, Durham, NH.
Book A. L. Shigo A. L. Shigo. 1991. Modern Arboriculture 424. Shigo and Trees, Associates, Durham, NH.
Article P. Rakochy and C. Hawkins P. Rakochy and C. Hawkins. 2006. BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management 7: 72-30.
Book H. D. Foth H. D. Foth. 1990. Fundamentals of Soil Science (8th Edition) 380. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
Book P. J. Craul P. J. Craul. 1992. Urban Soils in Landscape Design 416. John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York, NY.
Book L. D. Baver and W. H. Gardner and W. R. Gardner L. D. Baver and W. H. Gardner and W. R. Gardner. 1972. Soil physics (4th edition) 498. John Miley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
Book J. Urban J. Urban. 2008. Up by Roots: Healthy Soils and Trees in the Built Environment 479. International Society of Arboriculture, Champaign, IL .
Book L. R. E. Landon L. R. E. Landon. 1991. Booker Tropical Soil Manual 474. Longman, Burnt Mill, Harlow, UK.
Book P. Bullock and P. J. Gregory P. Bullock and P. J. Gregory. 1991. Soils in the Urban Environment 174. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, Great Britain.
Book W. Larcher W. Larcher. 1975. Physiological Plant Ecology 533. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
Book R. S. Russell R. S. Russell. 1977. Plant Root Systems: Their Functions and Interaction with the Soil 298. McGraw-Hill, London, England.
Book P. J. Kramer and T. T. Kozlowski P. J. Kramer and T. T. Kozlowski. 1979. Physiology of Woody Plants 811. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
Book S. E. Smith and D. J. Read S. E. Smith and D. J. Read. 1996. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis (Second Edition) 605. Academic Press, New York, NY.
Book L. R. Costello and K. S. Jones L. R. Costello and K. S. Jones. 2003. Reducing infrastructure damage by tree roots: a compendium of strategies 119. Western Chapter of the International Society of Arboriculture, Cohasset, CA.
Article Phillip van Mantgem and Nathan L. Stephenson Phillip van Mantgem and Nathan L. Stephenson. 2004. Does coring contribute to tree mortality?. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 2394-2398.
Article Zical Xu and Theodor D. Leininger and James G. Williams and Frank H. Tainter Zical Xu and Theodor D. Leininger and James G. Williams and Frank H. Tainter. 2000. Examination of the Arborsonic Decay Detector for detecting bacterial wetwood in red oaks. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 24: 6-10.
Article B. C. P. Kane and H. D. P. Ryan B. C. P. Kane and H. D. P. Ryan . 2003. Examining formulas that assess strength loss due to decay in trees: woundwood toughness improvement in red maple (Acer rubrum). Journal of Arboriculture 29: 207-217.
Article H. Kubler H. Kubler. 1983. Mechanism of frost crack formation in trees--a review and synthesis. Forest Science 29: 559-568.
Report E. D. Rast and J. A. Beaton and D. L. Sonderman E. D. Rast and J. A. Beaton and D. L. Sonderman. 1989. Photographic guide of selected external defect indicators and associated internal defects in white oak. 24.
Article D. I. Haase and R. Rose D. I. Haase and R. Rose. 1993. Soil moisture stress induces transplant shock in stored and unstored 2+0 Douglas-fir seedlings of varying root volume. Forest Science 39: 275-294.
Report A. N. S. Institute A. N. S. Institute. 2004. Standard Practices (Fertilization) (A300, Part 2). Tree, Shrub, and Other Woody Plant Maintenance 16. Tree Care Industry Association, Manchester, NH.
Article J. L. Sandoz and P. Lorin J. L. Sandoz and P. Lorin. 1996. Tares iares internes de bois sur pied : Détection par ultrasons (Internal defects in standing timber: ultrasound detection). Revue Forestiere Francaise 48: 231-240.
Article M. P. Coutts M. P. Coutts. 1979. 3-The physiological characteristics of trees, and damage to buildings by root activity. Arboricultural Journal 3: 413-419.
Article D. Sinnett and J. Poole and T. R. Hutchings D. Sinnett and J. Poole and T. R. Hutchings. 2008. A comparison of cultivation techniques for successful tree establishment on compacted soil. Forestry 81: 663-679.
Article P. D. Mitchell and D. J. Chalmers P. D. Mitchell and D. J. Chalmers. 1983. A comparison of microjet and point emitter (trickle) irrigation in the establishment of a high-density peach orchard. HortScience 18: 472-474.
Article S. D. Day and J. R. Seiler and N. Persaud S. D. Day and J. R. Seiler and N. Persaud. 2000. A comparison of root growth dynamics of silver maple and flowering dogwood in compacted soil at differing soil water contents. Tree Physiology 20: 257-263.
Article C. M. Greco and A. Lee and D. Ham and E. T. Smiley and E. H. Law C. M. Greco and A. Lee and D. Ham and E. T. Smiley and E. H. Law. 2004. A computer simulation of an alternative design to tree crown support systems. Journal of Arboriculture 30: 6.
Article Gunter Sinn and Lothar Wessolly Gunter Sinn and Lothar Wessolly. 1989. A contribution to the proper assessment of the strength and stability of trees. Arboricultural Journal 13: 45-65.
Article Claus Matteck and K. Bethge Claus Matteck and K. Bethge. 2005. A critic of the static integrated analysis (SIA) method. Arboricultural Journal 28: 191-200.
Article M. Lawson and D. O'Callaghan M. Lawson and D. O'Callaghan. 1995. A critical analysis of the role of trees in damage to low rise buildings. Journal of Arboriculture 21: 90-97.
Article S.B. Mickovski and A. Stokes and L.P.H. van Beek S.B. Mickovski and A. Stokes and L.P.H. van Beek. 2005. A decision support tool for windthrow hazard assessment and prevention. Forest Ecology and Management 216: 64-76.
Article P. J. Craul P. J. Craul. 1985. A description of urban soils and their desired characteristics. Journal of Arboriculture 11: 330-339.
Article Y. Kuroda and K. Katsuya Y. Kuroda and K. Katsuya. 1987. A diagnosis of heart rot of Japanese larch with borescopes. Bull. Exp. For. Tsukuba Univ. 3: 83-87.
Article S. J. Mitchell S. J. Mitchell. 1998. A diagnostic framework for windthrow risk estimation. Forestry Chronicle 74: 100-105.
Article A.H. England and C.J. Baker and S.E.T. Saunderson A.H. England and C.J. Baker and S.E.T. Saunderson. 2000. A dynamic analysis of windthrow of trees. Forestry 73: 225-238.
Article Paolo Gonthier and Giovanni Nicolotti Paolo Gonthier and Giovanni Nicolotti. 2007. A field key to iIdentify common wood decay fungal species on standing trees . Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 33: 410-420.
Article Lionel X. Dupuy and Thierry Fourcaud and Patrick Lac and Alexia Stokes Lionel X. Dupuy and Thierry Fourcaud and Patrick Lac and Alexia Stokes. 2007. A generic 3D finite element model of tree anchorage integrating soil mechanics and real root system architecture. American J. Botany 94: 1506-1514.
Article Jean-Claude Ruel and S. K. Mitchell and M. Dornier Jean-Claude Ruel and S. K. Mitchell and M. Dornier. 2002. A GIS Based Approach to Map Wind Exposure for Windthrow Hazard Rating. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 19: 183-187.
Book P. Sterken P. Sterken. 2005. A guide for tree-stability analysis. Peter Sterken.
Article C. Mattheck and H. Breloer and K. Bethge C. Mattheck and H. Breloer and K. Bethge. 1994. A guide to fractometer tree assessment. Arborist News 3: 9-12.
Book James R. Clark and Nelda P. Matheny James R. Clark and Nelda P. Matheny. 1993. A handbook of hazard tree evaluation for utility arborists. 34. International Society of Arboriculture.
Article Tobias Kerzenmacher and Barry Gardiner Tobias Kerzenmacher and Barry Gardiner. 1998. A mathematical model to describe the dynamic response of a spruce tree to the wind. Trees - Structure and Function 12: 385-394.
Article Heli M. Peltola and Seppo Kellomäki and H. Väisänen and V. P. Ikonen Heli M. Peltola and Seppo Kellomäki and H. Väisänen and V. P. Ikonen. 1999. A mechanistic model for assessing the risk of wind and snow damage to single trees and stands of Scots pine, Norway spruce, and birch. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29: 647-661.
Article B. C. Scharenbroch B. C. Scharenbroch. 2009. A meta-analysis of studies published in Arboriculture & Urban Forestry relating to organic materials and impacts on soil, tree, and environmental properties. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 35: 221-231.
Book Section Alexia Stokes and Michael Drexhage and D. Guitard Alexia Stokes and Michael Drexhage and D. Guitard. 2000. A method for predicting the possible site of failure in trees during mechanical loading. The supporting roots of trees and woody plants: form, funciton and physiology. 279-286. ed. ed. A. Stokes, Springer.
Article W. R. Gill and R. D. Miller W. R. Gill and R. D. Miller. 1956. A method for study of the influence of mechanical impedance and aeration on the growth of seedling roots. Soil Science Society of America Journal 20: 154-157.
Article C. Hackett C. Hackett. 1972. A method of applying nutrients locally to roots under controlled conditions, and some morphological effects of locally applied nitrate on the branching of wheat roots. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 25: 1169-1180.
Article N. Anselmi and G. Bragaloni N. Anselmi and G. Bragaloni. 1992. A method to identify wood decay basidiomycetes by using enzymatic comparisons. Micologia Italiana 2: 15-20.
Article F. Guglielmo and S. E. Bergemann and P. Gonthier and G. Nicolotti and M. Garbelotto F. Guglielmo and S. E. Bergemann and P. Gonthier and G. Nicolotti and M. Garbelotto. 2007. A multiplex PCR-based method for the detection and early identification of wood rotting fungi in standing trees. Journal of Applied Microbiology 103: 1490-1507.
Article Claus Matteck and K. Bethge and I. Tesari and R. Kappel Claus Matteck and K. Bethge and I. Tesari and R. Kappel. 2002. A new failure criterion for non decayed solitary trees. Arboricultural Journal 26: 43-54.
Article A. Habermehl A. Habermehl. 1982. A new non-destructive method for detecting internal wood conditions and decay in living trees. Part 1: principles, method and apparatus. Arboricultural Journal 6: 1-8.
Article A. Habermehl A. Habermehl. 1982. A new non-destructive method for detecting internal wood conditions and decay in living trees. Part 1: results and further developments. Arboricultural Journal 6: 121-130.
Article J. Grabosky and N. Bassuk J. Grabosky and N. Bassuk. 1995. A new urban tree soil to safely increase rooting volumes under sidewalks. Journal of Arboriculture 21: 187-201.
Article L. Dupuy and T. Fourcaud and a. Stokes L. Dupuy and T. Fourcaud and a. Stokes. 2005. A numerical investigation into factors affecting the anchorage of roots in tTension. European Journal of Soil Science 56: 319-327.
Article Lionel Dupuy and Thierry Fourcaud and Alexia Stokes Lionel Dupuy and Thierry Fourcaud and Alexia Stokes. 2005. A numerical investigation into the influence of soil type and root architecture on tree anchorage. Plant and Soil 278: 119-134.
Book Nelda P. Matheny and James R. Clark Nelda P. Matheny and James R. Clark. 1994. A photographic guide to the evaluation of hazard trees in urban areas. 89. International Society of Arboriculture.
Conference E. A. M. Couenberg E. A. M. Couenberg. 2009. A preliminary study evaluating oxygen status beneath different surface-hardening materials for park use. The Landscape Below Ground III: Proceedings of an International Workshop on Tree Root Development in Urban Soils 189-202. ed. G. W. Watson and L. Costello and B. Scharenbroch and E. Gilman, International Society of Arboriculture, Champaign, IL.
Report R. Prasad and P. R. Moody R. Prasad and P. R. Moody. 1974. A preliminary study on the chemical control of maple roots (Acer saccharinum L.) with herbicides. Report, Chemical Control Research Institute 10.
Article Alpo Hassinen and Matti Lemettinen and Heli Peltola and Seppo Kellomäki and Barry Gardiner Alpo Hassinen and Matti Lemettinen and Heli Peltola and Seppo Kellomäki and Barry Gardiner. 1998. A prism-based system for monitoring the swaying of trees under wind loading. Agricultural Forest Meteorology 90: 187-194.
Conference P. Gaidula P. Gaidula. 1975. A report on tree hazard problems and a brief review of research. Proceedings of the Joint Meeting of the 26th Western Forest Insect Work Conference and the 22nd Western International Forest Disease Work Conference. 80-81.
Article J. Morgenroth J. Morgenroth. 2008. A review of root barrier research. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 34: 84-88.
Article J. Jellison and C. Jasalavich J. Jellison and C. Jasalavich. 2000. A review of selected methods for the detection of degradative fungi. International Biodeterioration \& Biodegradation 46: 241-244.
Article Kana Kamimura and Norihiko Shiraishi Kana Kamimura and Norihiko Shiraishi. 2007. A review of strategies for wind damage assessment in Japanese forests. Journal of Forest Research 12: 162-176.
Article S. D. Day and N. L. Bassuk S. D. Day and N. L. Bassuk. 1994. A review of the effects of soil compaction and amelioration treatments on landscape trees. Journal of Arboriculture 20: 9-17.
Article T. R. Randrup and E. G. McPherson and L. R. Costello T. R. Randrup and E. G. McPherson and L. R. Costello. 2003. A review of tree root conflicts with sidewalks, curbs, and roads. Urban Ecosystems 5: 209-225.
Article P. G. Blackwell and K. Rennolls and M. Coutts P. G. Blackwell and K. Rennolls and M. Coutts. 1990. A root anchorage model for shallowly rooted Sitka spruce. Forestry 63: 73-91.
Book Charles Guard and Mark A. Lander Charles Guard and Mark A. Lander. 1999. A scale relating tropical cyclone wind speed to potential damage for the tropical Pacific ocean region: A user's manual. National Weather Station, Pacific Region Headquarters.
Conference G. Foret and A. Alaoui Soulimani and J. L. Laurencot and H. Bossuat G. Foret and A. Alaoui Soulimani and J. L. Laurencot and H. Bossuat. 1998. A software for the evaluation of wind stability of trees: CILVA. 496: 289-297. Acta Hort (ISHS).
Article G. Prior and P. M. Berthouex G. Prior and P. M. Berthouex. 1967. A study of salt pollution of soil by highway salting. Highway Resource Record 193: 8-21.
Article S. J. Hodge and R. Boswell S. J. Hodge and R. Boswell. 1993. A study of the relationship between site conditions and urban tree growth. Journal of Arboriculture 19: 358-367.
Article W. C. Croxton W. C. Croxton. 1939. A study of the tolerance of trees to breakage by ice accumulation. Ecology 20: 71-73.
Article R. Carnell and M. A. Anderson R. Carnell and M. A. Anderson. 1986. A technique for extensive field measurement of soil anaerobism by using rusting of steel rods. Forestry 59: 129-140.
Article W. Galinsky W. Galinsky. 1989. A windthrow-risk determination for coniferous trees. Forestry 62: 139-146.
Article K. Smith and P. May and R. White K. Smith and P. May and R. White. 2010. Above and belowground growth of Corymbia maculate in a constructed soil: the effect of profile design and organic amendment. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 36: 11-17.
Article M. J. Krasowski and J. N. Owens and L. E. Tackaberry and H. B. Massicotte M. J. Krasowski and J. N. Owens and L. E. Tackaberry and H. B. Massicotte. 1999. Above- and below-ground growth of white spruce seedlings with roots divided into different substrates with or without controlled-release fertilizer. Plant and Soil 217: 131-143.
Article D. R. Helliwell D. R. Helliwell. 1990. Acceptable levels of risk associated with trees. Arboricultural Journal 14: 159-162.
Book L. A. Paine L. A. Paine. 1971. Accident Hazard Evaluation and Control Decisions on Forested Recreation Sites. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Book L. A. Paine L. A. Paine. 1966. Accidents caused by hazardous trees on California forest recreation sites. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, US Dept. of Agriculture.
Article M. A. Cunningham and E. Snyder and D. Yonkin and M. Ross and E. Toren M. A. Cunningham and E. Snyder and D. Yonkin and M. Ross and E. Toren. 2008. Accumulation of deicing salts in soils in an urban environment. Urban Ecosystems 11: 17-31.
Book Xiping Wang and R. Bruce Allison and Lihai Wang and Robert J. Ross Xiping Wang and R. Bruce Allison and Lihai Wang and Robert J. Ross. 2007. Acoustic tomography for decay detection in red oak trees. 7. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.
Article Bruce C. Nicoll and Duncan Ray Bruce C. Nicoll and Duncan Ray. 1996. Adaptive growth of tree root systems in response to wind action and site conditions. Tree Physiology 16: 891-898.
Article A. Huttermann and M. Zommorodi and K. Reise A. Huttermann and M. Zommorodi and K. Reise. 1999. Addition of hydrogels to soil for prolonging the survival of Pinus halepensis seedlings subjected to drought. Soil & Tillage Research 50: 295-304.
Book L. A. Paine L. A. Paine. 1973. Administrative goals and safety standards for hazard control on forested recreation sites.. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Article K. Y. Chan and L. Van Zwieten and I. Meszaros and A. Downie and S. Joseph K. Y. Chan and L. Van Zwieten and I. Meszaros and A. Downie and S. Joseph. 2007. Agronomic values of greenwaste biochar as a soil amendment. Australian Journal of Soil Research 45: 629-634.
Article S. Messenger S. Messenger. 1986. Alkaline runoff, soil pH and white oak manganese deficiency. Tree Physiology 2: 317-325.
Article H. Okamoto and H. Maenaka H. Okamoto and H. Maenaka. 2006. Alkalinization of concrete-neighboring areas and urban greening. Environmental Information Science 35: 84-85.
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Article Karl J. Niklas and Hanns-Christof Spatz Karl J. Niklas and Hanns-Christof Spatz. 2006. Allometric theory and the mechanical stability of large trees: proof and conjecture. American Journal of Botany 93: 824-828.
Article R. L. Hummel and C. R. Johnson R. L. Hummel and C. R. Johnson. 1985. Amended backfills: their cost and effect on transplant growth and survival. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 3: 76-79.
Book Anonymous Anonymous. 2004. American Standards for Nursery Stock, ANSI Z60.1. 113. American Association of Nurserymen, Washington, DC.
Conference E. A. M. Couenberg E. A. M. Couenberg. 1994. Amsterdam tree soil. The Landscape Below Ground: Proceedings of an International Workshop on Tree Root Development in Urban Soils 24-33. ed. G. W. Watson and D. Neely, International Society of Arboriculture, Savoy, IL.
Article M. Terho M. Terho. 2009. An assessment of decay among urban Tilia, Betula, and Acer trees felled as hazardous. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 8: 77-85.
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Article A. Stokes and T. Fourcaud and J. Hruslka and J. Cermak and N. Nadezhdina and V. Nadezhdin and L. Praus A. Stokes and T. Fourcaud and J. Hruslka and J. Cermak and N. Nadezhdina and V. Nadezhdin and L. Praus. 2002. An evaluation of different methods to investigate root system architecture of urban trees in situ. I. Ground-penetrating radar. Journal of Arboriculture 28: 2-10.
Article J. D. MacDonald and L. R. Costello and T. Berger J. D. MacDonald and L. R. Costello and T. Berger. 1993. An evaluation of soil aeration status around healthy and declining oaks in an urban environment in California. Journal of Arboriculture 19: 209-219.
Article A. Stokes and J. Ball and A. H. Fitter and P. Brain and M. P. Coutts A. Stokes and J. Ball and A. H. Fitter and P. Brain and M. P. Coutts. 1996. An experimental investigation of the resistance of model root systems to uprooting. Annals of Botany 78: 415-421.
Article F. W. M. R Schwarze and David Lonsdale and S. Fink F. W. M. R Schwarze and David Lonsdale and S. Fink. 1997. An overview of wood degradation patterns and their implications for tree hazard assessment. Arboricultural Journal 21: 1-32.
Article G. W. Hudler and M. A. Beale G. W. Hudler and M. A. Beale. 1981. Anatomical features of girdling root injury. Arboricultural Journal 5: 131-136.
Article T. Lundström and T. Jonas and V. Stöckli and W. Ammann T. Lundström and T. Jonas and V. Stöckli and W. Ammann. 2007. Anchorage of mature conifers: resistive turning moment, root-soil plate geometry and root growth orientation. Tree Physiology 27: 1217-1227.
Article K. B. Bevington and W. S. Castle K. B. Bevington and W. S. Castle. 1985. Annual root growth pattern of young citrus trees in relation to shoot growth, soil temperature, and soil water content. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 110: 840-845.
Article W. S. Castle W. S. Castle. 1983. Antitranspirant and root canopy pruning effects on mechanically transplanted eight-year-old Murcott citrus trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 108: 981-985.
Article J. Yang and G. Zhang and Y. Zhao and X. Ruan and Y. Y. He J. Yang and G. Zhang and Y. Zhao and X. Ruan and Y. Y. He. 2005. Application and comparison of soil compaction indexes in the evaluation of urban soils. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering 21: 51-55.
Article G. Nicolotti and L. V. Socco and R. Martinis and A. Godio and L. Sambuelli G. Nicolotti and L. V. Socco and R. Martinis and A. Godio and L. Sambuelli. 2003. Application and comparison of three tomographic techniques for detection of decay in trees. Journal of Arboriculture 29: 66-78.
Conference W. F. Miller W. F. Miller. 1989. Application of ground-penetrating radar to detection of internal defect in standing trees. Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Nondestructive Testing of Wood. 262-273.
Article A. Habermehl and H.-W. Ridder A. Habermehl and H.-W. Ridder. 1993. Application of tomography for non-destroying investigations on wood of living trees: Forestry studies. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 51: 1-6.
Article A. Habermehl and H.-W. Ridder A. Habermehl and H.-W. Ridder. 1993. Application of tomography for non-destroying investigations on wood of living trees: Studies on park and avenue trees. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff 51: 101-106.
Article P. J. Wilson and J. D. Allen and J. C. F. Walker P. J. Wilson and J. D. Allen and J. C. F. Walker. 1982. Appraisal of the Shigometer technique. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 12: 86-95.
Book Victor D. Merullo and M. J. Valentine Victor D. Merullo and M. J. Valentine. 2004. Arboriculture and the law. International Soceity of Arboriculture, Champaign, IL.
Book Richard W. Harris and James R. Clark and Nelda P. Matheny Richard W. Harris and James R. Clark and Nelda P. Matheny. 2003. Arboriculture: Integrated Management of Landscape Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. 592. Prentice Hall.
Article P. E. Wiseman and C. E. Wells P. E. Wiseman and C. E. Wells. 2009. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation affects root development of Acer and Magnolia species. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 27: 70-79.
Article G. W. Watson G. W. Watson. 1987. Are auxins practical for B&B trees? . American Nurseryman 166: 183-184.
Article W. H. Livingston W. H. Livingston. 1990. Armillaria Ostoyae in young spruce plantations . Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20: 1773-1778.
Article P. Singh and G. C. Carew P. Singh and G. C. Carew. 1983. Armillaria root rot on urban trees: another perspective to the root rot problem in Newfoundland. Canadian Plant Disease Survey 63: 3-6.
Report A. S. o. Engineers A. S. o. Engineers. 1999. ASAE Standard: S313.3 Soil cone penetrometer. 2. American Society of Agricutlural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.
Conference J. Kopinga J. Kopinga. 1994. Aspects of the damage to asphalt road pavings caused by tree roots. The Landscape Below Ground: Proceedings of an International Workshop on Tree Root Development in Urban Soils 165-178. ed. G. W. Watson and D. Neely, International Society of Arboriculture, Savoy, IL.
Report Kim D. Coder Kim D. Coder. 1996. Assessing extent and severity of mechanical injuries in trees. 4.
Conference B. R. Fraedrich and E. T. Smiley B. R. Fraedrich and E. T. Smiley. 2002. Assessing the failure potential of tree roots. Tree Structure and Mechanics Conference Proceedings: How Trees Stand Up and Fall Down 159-163. ed. E. T. Smiley and K. D. Coder, International Society of Arboriculture, Champaign, IL.
Article E. Valinger and L. Lundqvist and L. Bondesson E. Valinger and L. Lundqvist and L. Bondesson. 1993. Assessing the risk of snow and wind damage from tree physical characteristics. Forestry 66: 249-260.
Conference A. Chuisoli and A. Minelli A. Chuisoli and A. Minelli. 1999. Assessment and comparison of most common diagnostic tools in lime wood-decay. Proc. Intl. Symp. on Urban Tree Health. 496: 229-232. Acta Hort (ISHS).
Book Xiping Wang and Ferenc Divos and Crystal Pilon and Brain K. Brashaw and Robert J. Ross and Roy F. Pellerin Xiping Wang and Ferenc Divos and Crystal Pilon and Brain K. Brashaw and Robert J. Ross and Roy F. Pellerin. 2004. Assessment of decay in standing timber using stress wave timing nondestructive evaluation tools. 14. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service.
Article N. P. Matheny and J. R. Clark and D. Attewell and K. Hillery and A. W. Graham and G. Posner N. P. Matheny and J. R. Clark and D. Attewell and K. Hillery and A. W. Graham and G. Posner. 1999. Assessment of fracture moment and fracture angle in 25 tree species in the United States using the Fractometer. Journal of Arboriculture 25: 18-23.
Book E. M. Sharon E. M. Sharon. 1985. Assessment of hazard trees within developed campgrounds in the Rocky Mountain region. Timber, Forest Pest, and Cooperative Forestry Management, Rocky Mountain Region, USDA Forest Service.
Article D. K. Struve and B. C. Moser D. K. Struve and B. C. Moser. 1984. Auxin effects on root regeneration of scarlet oak seedlings. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 109: 91-95.
Article G. C. Percival and S. Barnes G. C. Percival and S. Barnes. 2004. Auxins and water-retaining polymer root dips affect survival and growth of newly transplanted bare-rooted European beech and silver birch. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 22: 183-188.
Article A. Hewitt and G. Watson A. Hewitt and G. Watson. 2009. Bare root liner production can alter tree root architecture. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 27: 99-104.
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Article S. D. Day and J. R. Harris S. D. Day and J. R. Harris. 2008. Growth, survival, and root system morphology of deeply planted Corylus colurna 7 years after transplanting and the effects of root collar excavation. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 7: 119-128.
Article M. R. Ismail and K. M. Noor M. R. Ismail and K. M. Noor. 1996. Growth, water relations and physiological processes of starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L) plants under root growth restriction. Scientia Horticulturae 66: 51-58.
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Report National and Joint and Utilities and Group National and Joint and Utilities and Group. 1995. Guidelines for the Planning, Installation and Maintenance of Utility Services in Proximity to Trees. Guidelines for the planning, installation and maintenance of utility services in proximity to trees 12.
Conference K. K. Abdollahi and Zhua Hua Ning and Daniel Collins and Fulbert Namwamba and Asebe Negatu K. K. Abdollahi and Zhua Hua Ning and Daniel Collins and Fulbert Namwamba and Asebe Negatu. 2007. Gulf coastal urban forest hazard assessment and remote sensing efforts after hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Seventh Symposium on the Urban Environment.
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Webpage Hazard Tree - A Bibliography of Hazard Trees and Tree Management in Recreation Areas.
Article Julian Dunster Julian Dunster. 1996. Hazard tree assessments: developing a species profile for western hemlock . Journal of Arboriculture 22: 51-57.
Book Section E. Smiley and Bruce Fraedrich and Peter Fengler E. Smiley and Bruce Fraedrich and Peter Fengler. 2007. Hazard Tree Inspection, Evaluation, and Management. Urban and Community Forestry in the Northeast. 277-294. ed. ed. John E. Kuser,
Article Michael J. Mortimer and Brian Kane Michael J. Mortimer and Brian Kane. 2004. Hazard tree liability in the United States: Uncertain risks for owners and professionals. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2: 159-165.
Webpage Jim Worrall Jim Worrall. 2007. Hazard tree management. Forest Health Management, Rocky Mountain Region, USDA Forest Service
Conference P. Gaidula P. Gaidula. 1976. Hazard trees in parks and campgrounds. Proceedings of the 24th Western International Forest Disease Work Conference. 20-23.
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Report D. Lonsdale D. Lonsdale. 2000. Hazards from trees: a general guide. 28.
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Book Patrick J. Barry and Coleman Doggett and Robert L. Anderson and Kenneth M. Swain Patrick J. Barry and Coleman Doggett and Robert L. Anderson and Kenneth M. Swain. 1993. How to evaluate and manage storm-damaged forest areas. 11. USDA For. Serv., , Southern Region.
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Report Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and USDA Forest Service Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and USDA Forest Service. 1996. How to recognize hazardous defects in trees. 20.
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Article W. G. Peacock and S. D. Brody and W. Highfield W. G. Peacock and S. D. Brody and W. Highfield. 2005. Hurricane risk perceptions among Florida's sing family homeowners. Landscape and Urban Planning 73: 120-135.
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Report Kim D. Coder Kim D. Coder. 1999. Hurricanes, trees, & forests: a selected bibliography. 8.
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Article Ari Talkkari and Heli Peltola and Seppo Kellomäki and Harri Strandman Ari Talkkari and Heli Peltola and Seppo Kellomäki and Harri Strandman. 2000. Integration of component models from the tree, stand and regional levels to assess the risk of wind damage at forest margins. Forest Ecology and Management 135: 303-313.
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Report A. L. Shigo and E. Allen, Jr. McGinnes and David T. Funk and Nelson Rogers A. L. Shigo and E. Allen, Jr. McGinnes and David T. Funk and Nelson Rogers. 1979. Internal defects associated with pruned and nonpruned branch atubs in black walnut.. 27.
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Book E. T. Smiley and James R. Clark E. T. Smiley and James R. Clark. 2006. International Tree Failure Database: User Manual. USDA Forest Service. National Urban and Community Forestry Council. Washington D.C..
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Article T. Martinez-Trinidad and W. T. Watson and M. A. Arnold and L. Lombardini T. Martinez-Trinidad and W. T. Watson and M. A. Arnold and L. Lombardini. 2009. Investigations of exogenous applications of carbohydrates on the growth and vitality of live oaks. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 8: 41-48.
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Book W. W. Wagener and C. P. S. Forest and R. E. Station W. W. Wagener and C. P. S. Forest and R. E. Station. 1963. Judging hazard from native trees in California recreational areas: a guide for professional foresters. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.
Conference J. S. Hatfield J. S. Hatfield. 1976. Judging potential for failure in western hemlock and Sitka spruce. Proceedings of the 24th Western International Forest Disease Work Conference. 27-30.
Conference B. K. Bakshi B. K. Bakshi. 1964. Known and potential hazards from stem diseases - heart rots. 8. FO-FAO.
Book Section G. Lesnino and Erk Brudi and C. Spieß G. Lesnino and Erk Brudi and C. Spieß. 2000. Kronensicherung mit dem cobra-System - Erfolgskontrolle nach fünf Jahren Einsatzdauer (Crown protection with the Cobra System - control after five years). Jahrbuch der Baumpflege (Yearbook of tree care). 111-118. ed. ed. D. Dujesiefken and P. Kockerbeck, Thalacker Medien, Braunschwieg.
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Article S. Baum and F. W. M. R. Schwarze S. Baum and F. W. M. R. Schwarze. 2002. Large-leaved lime (Tilia platyphyllos) has a low ability to compartmentalize decay fungi via reaction zone formation. New Phytologist 154: 481-490.
Article P. P. Kormanik P. P. Kormanik. 1986. Lateral root morphology as an expression of sweetgum seedling quality . Forest Science 32: 595-604.
Report J. L. Ruehle and P. P. Kormanik J. L. Ruehle and P. P. Kormanik. 1986. Lateral root morphology: a potential indicator of seedling quality in northern red oak. USDA Forest Service Southeastern Forest Experiment Station Research Note 6.
Article L. M. Anderson L. M. Anderson. 1988. Legal liability for defective trees in the United States. . Landscape and Urban Planning 15: 173-94.
Article D. Doll D. Doll. 1991. Les ecataclysmes êoliens dans les forêts d'Europe: apercu historique. Forêt Enterprise 77: 8-9.
Article R. M. Robinson and D. J. Morrison R. M. Robinson and D. J. Morrison. 2001. Lesion formation and host response to infection by Armillaria ostoyae in the roots of western larch and douglas-fir. Forest Pathology 31: 371-385.
Article Victor D. Merullo Victor D. Merullo. 1988. Liabilities and duties associated with trees which abut streets and highways. Journal of Arboriculture 14: 129-131.
Article L. M. Anderson and T. A. Eaton L. M. Anderson and T. A. Eaton. 1986. Liability for damage caused by hazardous trees. Journal of Arboriculture 12: 189-195.
Article Y. Hirano and M. Dannoura and K. Aono and T. Igarashi and M. Ishii and K. Yamase and N. Makita and Y. Kanazawa Y. Hirano and M. Dannoura and K. Aono and T. Igarashi and M. Ishii and K. Yamase and N. Makita and Y. Kanazawa. 2009. Limiting factors in the detection of tree roots using ground-penetrating radar. Plant and Soil 319: 15-24.
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Article S. J. Torreano and L. A. Morris S. J. Torreano and L. A. Morris. 1998. Loblolly pine root growth and distribution under water stress. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62: 818-827.
Thesis Erk Brudi Erk Brudi. 2001. Longitudinal prestresses in Tilia cordata and Acer pseudoplatanus.
Report R. D. Harvey and P. F. Hessburg and P. N. Region R. D. Harvey and P. F. Hessburg and P. N. Region. 1992. Long-range planning for developed sites in the Pacific Northwest: The context of hazard tree management. 120.
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Article C. Y. Jim C. Y. Jim. 2001. Managing urban trees and their soil envelopes in a contiguously developed city environment. Environmental Management 28: 819-832.
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Article Mark Rudnicki and U. Silins and V. J. Liefferd and G. Josi Mark Rudnicki and U. Silins and V. J. Liefferd and G. Josi. Measure of simultaneous tree sways and estimation of crown interactions among a group of trees. Trees - Structure and Function 15: 83-90.
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Report H. G. Halverson and R. P. Zisa H. G. Halverson and R. P. Zisa. 1982. Measuring the response of conifer seedlings to soil compaction stress. USDA Forest Service Research Paper 6.
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Thesis J. R. Moore J. R. Moore. 2002. Mechanical behaviour of coniferous trees subjected to wind loading.
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Article Heli Peltola and Seppo Kellomäki and Alpo Hassinen and Markku Granander Heli Peltola and Seppo Kellomäki and Alpo Hassinen and Markku Granander. 2000. Mechanical stability of Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch: an analysis of tree-pulling experiments in Finland. Forest Ecology and Management 135: 143-153.
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Article M. Backstrom and S. Karlsson and L. Backman and L. Folkeson and B. Lind M. Backstrom and S. Karlsson and L. Backman and L. Folkeson and B. Lind. 2004. Mobilisation of heavy metals by deicing salts in a roadside environment. Water Research 38: 720-732.
Article Heli Peltola and Marja-Leena Nykänen and Seppo Kellomäki Heli Peltola and Marja-Leena Nykänen and Seppo Kellomäki. 1997. Model computations on the critical combination of snow loading and windspeed for snow damage of Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch sp. at stand edge. Forest Ecology and Management 95: 229-241.
Article C. M. P. Vaz and J. M. Manieri and I. C. de Maria and M. Tuller C. M. P. Vaz and J. M. Manieri and I. C. de Maria and M. Tuller. 2011. Modeling and correction of soil penetration resistance for varying soil water content. Geoderma 166: 92-101.
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Book Section Modeling the failure of trees in high winds. Wind engineering into the 21st century.
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Article Véronique Cucchi and Céline Meredieu and Alexia Stokes and François de Coligny and Juan Suarez and Barry A. Gardiner Véronique Cucchi and Céline Meredieu and Alexia Stokes and François de Coligny and Juan Suarez and Barry A. Gardiner. 2005. Modeling the windthrow risk for simulated forest stands of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Forest Ecology and Management 213: 184-196.
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Article Marja-Leena Päätalo and Heli Peltola and Seppo Kellomäki Marja-Leena Päätalo and Heli Peltola and Seppo Kellomäki. 1999. Modelling the risk of snow damage to forests under short-term snow loading. Forest Ecology and Management 116: 51-70.
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Book Joakim Axmon and Maria Hansson Joakim Axmon and Maria Hansson. 1999. Nondestructive Detection of Decay in Spruces Using Acoustic Signals: Evaluation of Circumferential Modes. 66. Lund Institute of Technology, University.
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Article D. Barnett D. Barnett. 1986. Root growth and water use by newly transplanted woody landscape plants. The Public Garden 1: 23-25.
Article B. F. Wilson B. F. Wilson. 1967. Root growth around barriers. Botanical Gazette 128: 79-82.
Article N. E. D'Amato and T. D. Sydnor and R. Hunt and B. Bishop N. E. D'Amato and T. D. Sydnor and R. Hunt and B. Bishop. 2002. Root growth beneath sidewalks near trees of four genera. Journal of Arboriculture 28: 283-290.
Article L. Qu and A. M. Quoreshi and T. Koike L. Qu and A. M. Quoreshi and T. Koike. 2003. Root growth characteristics, biomass and nutrient dynamics of seedlings of two larch species raised under different fertilization regimes. Plant and Soil 255: 293-302.
Article E. T. Smiley E. T. Smiley. 2005. Root growth near vertical root barriers. Journal of Arboriculture 31: 150-152.
Article E. T. Smiley and L. Wilkinson and B. R. Fraedrich E. T. Smiley and L. Wilkinson and B. R. Fraedrich. 2009. Root growth near vertical root barriers after seven years. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 35: 23-26.
Book Section S. D. Richardson S. D. Richardson. 1953. Root growth of Acer pseudoplatanus L. in relation to grass cover and nitrogen deficiency. Mededelingen Landbouwhogesch Wageningen 53: 75-97. Veenman & Zonen, Netherlands.
Article N. R. Hullugalle and R. Lal N. R. Hullugalle and R. Lal. 1986. Root growth of maize in a compacted gravelly tropical alfisol as affected by rotation with a woody perennial. Field Crop Research 13: 33-44.
Article E. F. Gilman and M. E. Kane E. F. Gilman and M. E. Kane. 1990. Root growth of red maple following planting from containers . Hortscience 25: 527-528.
Article C. A. Martin and D. L. Ingram C. A. Martin and D. L. Ingram. 1991. Root growth of southern magnolia following exposure to high root-zone temperatures. HortScience 26: 370-371.
Article H. H. Witt H. H. Witt. 1997. Root growth of trees as influenced by physical and chemical soil factors. Acta Horticulturae 450: 205-214.
Conference S. Reichwein S. Reichwein. 2003. Root growth under pavements - results of a field study. Second international symposium on plant health in urban horticulture 132-137. ed. H. Balder and K-H. Strauch and G. F. Bachhaus, Senate for Urban Development, Berlin.
Book Section T. J. Walmsley and B. Hunt and A. D. Bradshaw T. J. Walmsley and B. Hunt and A. D. Bradshaw. 1991. Root growth, water stress and tree establishment. Research for Practical Arboriculture (Forest Commission Bulletin Series, No 97) 38-43. ed. S. J. Hodge, Bernan Press.
Article E. J. Studer and P. L. Steponkus and G. L. Good and S. C. Weist E. J. Studer and P. L. Steponkus and G. L. Good and S. C. Weist. 1978. Root hardiness of container-grown ornamentals. HortScience 13: 172-174.
Article F. S. J. Santamour F. S. J. Santamour. 1979. Root hardiness of green ash seedlings from different provenances. Journal of Arboriculture 5: 276-278.
Article J. R. Havis J. R. Havis. 1976. Root hardiness of woody ornamentals. HortScience 11: 385-386.
Article E. F. Gilman and T. H. Yeager E. F. Gilman and T. H. Yeager. 1988. Root initiation in root-pruned hardwoods . Hortscience 23: 775.
Report W. C. Carlson W. C. Carlson. 1974. Root initiation induced by root pruning in northern red oak. Forestry Research Review, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, Ohio 14-16.
Book Section Alexia Stokes and Murad Ghani and Franck Salin and Frédéric Danjon and Henri Jeannin and Stéphane Berthier and Adzo Kokutse and Henri Frochot Alexia Stokes and Murad Ghani and Franck Salin and Frédéric Danjon and Henri Jeannin and Stéphane Berthier and Adzo Kokutse and Henri Frochot. 2007. Root morphology and strain distribution during tree failure on mountain slopes. Eco-and Ground Bio-Engineering: The Use of Vegetation to Improve Slope Stability. 165-173.
Article P. Heilman P. Heilman. 1981. Root penetration of Douglas-fir seedlings into compacted soil. Forest Science 27: 660-666.
Article E. T. Smiley E. T. Smiley. 2008. Root pruning and stability of young willow oak. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 34: 123-128.
Article E. T. Smiley E. T. Smiley. 2008. Root pruning and stability of young willow oak . Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 34: 123-128.
Article J. R. Harris and J. Fanelli and A. Niemiera and R. Wright J. R. Harris and J. Fanelli and A. Niemiera and R. Wright. 2001. Root pruning pin oak liners affects growth and root morphology. HortTechnology 11: 49-52.
Article M. M. Larson M. M. Larson. 1970. Root regeneration and early growth of red oak seedlings: Influence of soil temperature. Forest Science 16: 442-446.
Article E. K. S. Nambiar and G. D. Bowen and R. Sands E. K. S. Nambiar and G. D. Bowen and R. Sands. 1979. Root regeneration and plant water status of Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings transplanted to different soil temperatures. Journal of Experimental Botany 30: 1119-1131.
Article H. W. M. Fuchs H. W. M. Fuchs. 1986. Root regeneration of rose plants as influenced by applied auxins. Acta Horticulturae 189: 101-107.
Article W. R. Witherspoon and G. P. Lumis W. R. Witherspoon and G. P. Lumis. 1986. Root regeneration of Tilia cordata cultivars after transplanting in response to root exposure and soil moisture levels. Journal of Arboriculture 12: 165-168.
Article S. R. Pezeshki S. R. Pezeshki. 1991. Root responses of flood-tolerant and flood-sensitive tree species to soil redox conditions. Trees 5: 180-186.
Article K. Schroeder K. Schroeder. 2008. Root space underneath traffic lanes. Arboricultural Journal 31: 33-43.
Article W. Stepniewski and S. R. Pezeshki and R. D. DeLaune and W. H. Patrick Jr. W. Stepniewski and S. R. Pezeshki and R. D. DeLaune and W. H. Patrick Jr.. 1991. Root studies under variable redox potential in soil or soil suspensions using laboratory rhizotrons. Vegetatio 94: 47-55.
Article W. C. Carlson W. C. Carlson. 1986. Root system considerations in the quality of loblolly pine seedlings. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 10: 87-92.
Article W. S. Castle W. S. Castle. 1987. Root system development in field- and container-grown young citrus trees. Florida State Horticultural Society 100: 85-89.
Article S. Eis S. Eis. 1974. Root system morphology of Western hemlock, Western red cedar, and Douglas-fir . Canadian Journal of Forest Research 4: 28-38.
Article S. B. Horsley S. B. Horsley. 1971. Root tip injury and development of the paper birch root stem. Forest Science 17: 341-348.
Article G. P. Lumis and S. A. Struger G. P. Lumis and S. A. Struger. 1988. Root tissue development around wire-basket transplant containers. HortScience 23: 401.
Article P. S. Johnson and S. L. Novinger and W. G. Mares P. S. Johnson and S. L. Novinger and W. G. Mares. 1984. Root, shoot, and leaf area growth potentials of northern red oak planting stock . Forest Science 30: 1017-1026.
Article F. J. Bigras and D. Dumais F. J. Bigras and D. Dumais. 2005. Root-freezing damage in the containerized nursery: impact on plantation sites - a review. New Forests 30: 167-184.
Book Section H. Marschner and V. Romheld H. Marschner and V. Romheld. 1996. Root-induced changes in the availability of micronutrients in the rhizosphere. Plant Roots: The Hidden Half, second edition 557-579. ed. Y. Waisel and A. Eshel and U. Kafkafi, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
Report A. I. Fraser and J. B. H. Gardiner A. I. Fraser and J. B. H. Gardiner. 1967. Rooting and stability in sitka spruce.
Report M. Streckenbach and T. Stutzel and C. Bennerscheidt and K. Schroder M. Streckenbach and T. Stutzel and C. Bennerscheidt and K. Schroder. 2007. Roots and below-ground infrastructure (Wurzeln und unterirdische Infrastruktur). aFZ/Der Wald, Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift fur Waldwirtschaft und Umweltvorsorge 62: 194-196.
Article W. R. Graves and M. N. Dana and R. J. Joly W. R. Graves and M. N. Dana and R. J. Joly. 1989. Root-zone temperature affects water status and growth of red maple. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 114: 406-410.
Article W. R. Graves and M. N. Dana W. R. Graves and M. N. Dana. 1987. Root-zone temperature monitored at urban sites. Hortscience 22: 613-614.
Article R. Felix and A. L. Shigo R. Felix and A. L. Shigo. 1980. Rots and rods. Journal of Arboriculture 3: 187-190.
Article Claus Matteck and K. Bethge and J. Schäfer Claus Matteck and K. Bethge and J. Schäfer. 1993. Safety factors in trees. Journal of Theoretical Biology 165: 185-189.
Article H. V. Wester and E. E. Cohen H. V. Wester and E. E. Cohen. 1968. Salt damage to vegetation in the Washington D.C. area during the 1966-67 winter. Plant Disease Reporter 52: 350-354.
Article F. W. Holmes F. W. Holmes. 1961. Salt injury to trees. Phytopathology 51: 712-718.
Article S. Onwona-Agyeman and N. Morioka and M. Kondo and K. Kitagawa S. Onwona-Agyeman and N. Morioka and M. Kondo and K. Kitagawa. 1995. Seasonal changes in the modulus of elasticity of living branches of three coniferous species. Ecological Research 10: 199-206.
Article D. M. Eissenstat and J. E. Kuntz and G. L. Worf D. M. Eissenstat and J. E. Kuntz and G. L. Worf. 1988. Seasonal timing of root growth in favorable microsites. Ecology 69: 870-873.
Article G. W. Watson and E. B. Himelick G. W. Watson and E. B. Himelick. 1982. Seasonal variation in root regeneration of transplanted trees. Journal of Arboriculture 8: 305-310.
Article M. Garboletto and G. Slaughter and T. Popenuck and F. W. Cobb and T. D. Bruns M. Garboletto and G. Slaughter and T. Popenuck and F. W. Cobb and T. D. Bruns. 1997. Secondary spread of Heterobasidion annosum in white fir root-disease centers. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27: 766-773.
Conference Klaus Schröder Klaus Schröder. 2004. Securing of break-endangered tree crowns.
Article C. M. Siegel-Issem and J. A. Burger and R. F. Powers and F. Ponder and S. C. Patterson C. M. Siegel-Issem and J. A. Burger and R. F. Powers and F. Ponder and S. C. Patterson. 2005. Seedling root growth as a function of soil density and water content. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69: 215-226.
Article F. Lloret and C. Casanovas and J. Penuelas F. Lloret and C. Casanovas and J. Penuelas. 1999. Seedling survival of Mediterranean shrubland species in relation to root, shoot ratio, seed size and water and nitrogen use. Functional Ecology 13: 210-216.
Article A. Saebo and T. Bendedikz and T. B. Randrup A. Saebo and T. Bendedikz and T. B. Randrup. 2003. Selection of trees for urban forestry in the Nordic countries. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 2: 101-114.
Book Section C. E. Clapp and S. A. Stark and D. E. Clay and W. E. Larson C. E. Clapp and S. A. Stark and D. E. Clay and W. E. Larson. 1986. Sewage sludge organic matter and soil properties. The Role of Organic Matter in Modern Agriculture 209-253. ed. Y. Chen and Y. Avnimelech, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Article N. R. Townley N. R. Townley. 1969. Sewer root control-chemically. The American City 92-94.
Article J. Morgan and M. G. R. Cannell J. Morgan and M. G. R. Cannell. 1994. Shape of tree stems - a re-examination of the uniform stress hypothesis. Tree Physiology 14: 49-62.
Article C. Mattheck and K. Bethge and I. Tesari C. Mattheck and K. Bethge and I. Tesari. 2006. Shear effects on failure of hollow trees. Trees - Structure and Function 20: 329-333.
Article H. Okamoto and H. Maenaka H. Okamoto and H. Maenaka. 2007. Shift to alkali soil by adjacent concrete structure in city area. Journal of the Japanese Society of Revegetation Technology 33: 146-151.
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Article J. Grabosky and N. Bassuk and L. Irwin and H. Van Es J. Grabosky and N. Bassuk and L. Irwin and H. Van Es. 2001. Shoot and root growth of three tree species in sidewalks. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 19: 206-211.
Article S. A. Abod and A. D. Webster S. A. Abod and A. D. Webster. 1990. Shoot and root pruning effects on the growth and water relations of young Malus, Tilia and Betula transplants. Journal of Horticultural Science 65: 451-459.
Article F. J. Bigras and H. A. Margolis F. J. Bigras and H. A. Margolis. 1996. Shoot and root sensitivity of containerized black spruce, white spruce and jack pine seedlings to late fall freezing. New Forests 13: 29-49.
Conference D. C. Fare D. C. Fare. 2006. Should potting depth be a concern with container-grown trees?. Proceedings of Trees and Planting: Getting the Roots Right 25-29. The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, IL.
Article K. D. Coder K. D. Coder. 1989. Should you or shouldn't you fill tree hollows. Grounds Maintenance 24: 68-70.
Article J. A. Wagar J. A. Wagar. 1982. Sidewalk and soil amendment effects on growth of Zelkova and fruitless mulberry. Journal of Arboriculture 8: 267-270.
Article J. A. Wagar and A. L. Franklin J. A. Wagar and A. L. Franklin. 1994. Sidewalk effects on soil moisture and temperature. Journal of Arboriculture 20: 237-238.
Article W. D. Hamilton W. D. Hamilton. 1984. Sidewalk/curb-breaking tree roots. 1. Why tree roots cause pavement problems. Arboricultural Journal 8: 37-44.
Article W. D. Hamilton W. D. Hamilton. 1988. Significance of root severance on performance of established trees. Journal of Arboriculture 14: 288-292.
Article C. Mattheck and K. Bethge C. Mattheck and K. Bethge. 2000. Simple mathematical approaches to tree biomechanics. Arboricultural Journal 24: 307-326.
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Conference J. Kopinga J. Kopinga. 1985. Site preparation practice in the Netherlands. Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the Metropolitan Tree Improvement Alliance 5: 62-71. ed. L. J. Kuhns and J. C. Patterson,
Article J. Grabosky and N. Bassuk J. Grabosky and N. Bassuk. 2008. Sixth- and tenth-year growth measurements for three tree species in a load-bearing stone-soil blend under pavement and a tree lawn in Brooklyn, New York, U.S.. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 34: 265-266.
Article D. Pittenger and D. Hodel D. Pittenger and D. Hodel. 2009. Six-year evaluation of circular root barriers on two tree species. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 35: 41-46.
Article John E. A. Bertram John E. A. Bertram. 1989. Size-dependent differential scaling in branches: the mechanical design of trees revisited. Trees - Structure and Function 3: 241-253.
Article G. Yelenosky G. Yelenosky. 1963. Soil aeration and tree growth. International Shade Tree Conference Proceedings 39: 16-25.
Webpage K. Townsend and D. Ham and A. Miller and T. Chesnut K. Townsend and D. Ham and A. Miller and T. Chesnut. 1997. Soil aeration systems - Do they really improve tree root zone conditions under fill and paving?.
Article T. T. Kozlowski T. T. Kozlowski. 1985. Soil aeration, flooding, and tree growth. Journal of Arboriculture 11: 85-96.
Article S. Braun and W. Fluckiger S. Braun and W. Fluckiger. 1998. Soil amendments for plantings of urban trees. Soil & Tillage Research 49: 201-209.
Article C. Cogger and R. Hummel and J. Hart and A. Bary C. Cogger and R. Hummel and J. Hart and A. Bary. 2008. Soil and redosier dogwood response to incorporated and surface-applied compost. Hortscience 43: 2143-2150.
Book Section L. H. Stolzy L. H. Stolzy. 1974. Soil atmosphere. The Plant Root and its Environment 335-362. ed. E. W. Carson, University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.
Article M. C. Lincoln and R. E. Will and L. A. Morris and E. A. Carter and D. Markewitz and J. R. Britt and B. Cazell and V. Ford M. C. Lincoln and R. E. Will and L. A. Morris and E. A. Carter and D. Markewitz and J. R. Britt and B. Cazell and V. Ford. 2007. Soil change and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seedling growth following site preparation tillage in the Upper Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States. Forest Ecology and Management 242: 558-568.
Article T. T. Kozlowski T. T. Kozlowski. 1999. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 14: 596-619.
Conference J. C. Patterson J. C. Patterson. 1976. Soil compaction and its effects upon urban vegetation. Better trees for metropolitan landscapes, USDA Forest Service,General Technical Report NE-22 91-101. ed. F. S. Jr Santamour and H. D. Gerhold and S. Little, Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.
Conference K. Rolf K. Rolf. 1994. Soil compaction and loosening effects on soil physics on tree growth. The Landscape Below Ground: Proceedings of an International Workshop on Tree Root Development in Urban Soils 131-148. ed. G. W. Watson and D. Neely, International Society of Arboriculture, Savoy, IL.
Article P. W. Unger and T. C. Kaspar P. W. Unger and T. C. Kaspar. 1994. Soil compaction and root growth: a review. Agronomy Journal 86: 759-766.
Conference R. Fleming and N. Foster and J. Jeglum and P. Hazlett R. Fleming and N. Foster and J. Jeglum and P. Hazlett. 1998. Soil compaction and sustainable productivity on coarse-textured jack pine sites. Developing Systems for Integrating Bioenergy into Environmentally Sustainable Forestry: Proceedings of the International Energy Agency Bioenergy Agreement Task 18 Workshop 72-81. ed. A. T. Lowe and C. T. Smith, Forest Research Institute Bulletin 211, New Zealand Forest Research Institute, Rotorua, New Zealand.
Article C. E. Bulmer and D. G. Simpson C. E. Bulmer and D. G. Simpson. 2005. Soil compaction and water content as factors affecting the growth of lodgepole pine seedlings on sandy clay loam soil. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 85: 667-679.
Article C. Y. Jim C. Y. Jim. 1993. Soil compaction as a constraint to tree growth in tropical and subtropical urban habitats . Environmental Conservation 20: 35-49.
Article A. Gomez and R. F. Powers and M. J. Singer and W. R. Horwath A. Gomez and R. F. Powers and M. J. Singer and W. R. Horwath. 2002. Soil compaction effects on growth of young ponderosa pine following litter removal in California's Sierra Nevada. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66: 1334-1343.
Article S. Brais and C. Camire S. Brais and C. Camire. 1998. Soil compaction induced by careful logging in the claybelt region of northwestern Quebec (Canada). Canadian Journal of Soil Science 78: 197-206.
Article T. B. Randrup T. B. Randrup. 1997. Soil compaction on construction sites. Journal of Arboriculture 23: 207-210.
Article P. J. Craul P. J. Craul. 1994. Soil compaction on heavily used sites. Journal of Arboriculture 20: 69-74.
Article J. C. Patterson J. C. Patterson. 1977. Soil compaction-effects on urban vegetation. Journal of Arboriculture 3: 161-167.
Article D. H. Webster D. H. Webster. 1978. Soil conditions associated with absence or sparse development of apple roots. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 58: 961-969.
Article F. J. Veihmeyer and A. H. Hendrickson F. J. Veihmeyer and A. H. Hendrickson. 1948. Soil density and root penetration. Soil Science 65: 487-493.
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Book Section R. W. Pearson R. W. Pearson. 1965. Soil environment and root development. Plant Environment and Efficient Water Use 110-115. ed. W. H. Pierre and D. Kirkham and J. Pesek and R. Shaw, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.
Article A. J. M. Smucker A. J. M. Smucker. 1993. Soil environmental modifications of root dynamics and measurement. Annual Review of Phytopathology 31: 191-216.
Article G. A. Ruark and D. L. Mader and P. L. M. Veneman and T. A. Tattar G. A. Ruark and D. L. Mader and P. L. M. Veneman and T. A. Tattar. 1983. Soil factors related to urban sugar maple decline. Journal of Arboriculture 9: 1-6.
Article G. Z. Rayner G. Z. Rayner. 1965. Soil fumigants control roots in sewers. The American City 80: 135.
Article K. Rolf K. Rolf. 1991. Soil improvement and increased growth response from subsoil cultivation. Journal of Arboriculture 17: 200-204.
Article G. C. Percival and G. A. Fraser and S. Barnes G. C. Percival and G. A. Fraser and S. Barnes. 2004. Soil injections of carbohydrates improve fine root growth of established urban trees. Arboricultural Journal 28: 95-101.
Article P. E. Wiseman and C. Wells P. E. Wiseman and C. Wells. 2005. Soil inoculum potential and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Acer rubrum in forested and developed landscapes. Journal of Arboriculture 31: 296-302.
Article J. Morgenroth and G. D. Buchan J. Morgenroth and G. D. Buchan. 2009. Soil moisture and aeration beneath pervious and impervious pavements. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 35: 135-141.
Article I. Levin and R. Assaf and B. Bravdo I. Levin and R. Assaf and B. Bravdo. 1979. Soil moisture and root distribution in an apple orchard irrigated by tricklers. Plant and Soil 52: 31-40.
Book Section B. Lowery and J. E. Morrison B. Lowery and J. E. Morrison. 2002. Soil penetrometers and penetrability. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 4. Physical Methods 363-388. ed. J. H. Dane and G. C. Topp, ASA and SSA, Madison, WI.
Article B. W. Eavis B. W. Eavis. 1972. Soil physical conditions affecting seedling growth. I. Mechanical impedance, aeration, and moisture availability as influenced by bulk density and moisture levels in a sandy loam soil. Plant and Soil 36: 613-622.
Article D. S. Page-Dumroese and M. F. Jurgensen and A. E. Tiarks and F. Ponder and F. G. Sanchez and R. L. Fleming and J. M. Kranabetter and R. F. Powers and D. M. Stone and J. D. Elioff and D. A. Scott D. S. Page-Dumroese and M. F. Jurgensen and A. E. Tiarks and F. Ponder and F. G. Sanchez and R. L. Fleming and J. M. Kranabetter and R. F. Powers and D. M. Stone and J. D. Elioff and D. A. Scott. 2006. Soil physical property changes at the North American long-term soil productivity study sites: 1 and 5 years after compaction. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 551-564.
Article D. M. Stone and J. D. Elioff D. M. Stone and J. D. Elioff. 1998. Soil properties and aspen development five years after compaction and forest floor removal. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 78: 51-58.
Article F. F. Forristall and S. P. Gessel F. F. Forristall and S. P. Gessel. 1955. Soil properties related to forest cover type and productivity on the Lee Forest, Snohomish County, Washington. Soil Science Society of America Journal 19: 384-389.
Article G. W. Watson G. W. Watson. 2002. Soil replacement: long-term results. Journal of Arboriculture 28: 229-230.
Article P. Kelsey and R. Hootman P. Kelsey and R. Hootman. 1990. Soil resource evaluation for a group of sidewalk street tree planters. Journal of Arboriculture 16: 113-117.
Article B. C. Ball and M. F. O'Sullivan B. C. Ball and M. F. O'Sullivan. 1982. Soil strength and crop emergence in direct drilled and ploughed cereal seedbeds in seven field experiments. Journal of Soil Science 33: 609-622.
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Report D. K. Struve and B. C. Moser D. K. Struve and B. C. Moser. 1985. Soil temperature effects on root regeneration of scarlet oak seedlings. Research Circular 2841: 12-14. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.
Article H. Pellet H. Pellet. 1981. Soil temperature effects on urban plants. New Horizons 34-36. Horticultural Research Institute, Washington, DC.
Report H. G. Halverson and G. M. Heisler H. G. Halverson and G. M. Heisler. 1981. Soil Temperatures under urban trees and asphalt. USDA Forest Service Research Paper 6.
Article T. J. Tworkoski and J. A. Burger and D. W. Smith T. J. Tworkoski and J. A. Burger and D. W. Smith. 1983. Soil texture and bulk density affect early growth of white oak seedlings. Tree Planters' Notes 34: 22-25.
Conference J. Juzwik and R. R. Allmaras and K. M. Gust J. Juzwik and R. R. Allmaras and K. M. Gust. 1997. Soil tillage practices and root disease management. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-419 23-28. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.
Article D. Kent and S. Shultz and T. Wyatt and D. Halcrow D. Kent and S. Shultz and T. Wyatt and D. Halcrow. 2006. Soil volume and tree condition in Walt Disney World parking lots. Landscape Journal 25: 94-107.
Article J. R. Short and D. S. Fanning and M. S. Mclntosh and J. E. Foss and J. C. Patterson J. R. Short and D. S. Fanning and M. S. Mclntosh and J. E. Foss and J. C. Patterson. 1986. Soils of the Mall in Washington, D.C: I. Statistical summary of properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal 50: 699-705.
Conference J. Kopinga J. Kopinga. 1994. Some aspects of the damage of asphalt road pavings caused by tree root, including some preventive control methods. Proceedings of the 10th Osnabrucker Baumpflegetage 10.1-10.23.
Article G. J. Mayhead G. J. Mayhead. 1973. Some drag coefficients for British forest trees derived from wind tunnel studies.. Agricultural Forest Meteorology 12: 123-130.
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Article W. Armstrong and D. J. Read W. Armstrong and D. J. Read. 1972. Some observations on oxygen transport in conifer seedlings. New Phytologist 71: 55-62.
Conference P. A. Barker P. A. Barker. 1983. Some urban trees of California: Maintenance problems and genetic improvement possibilities. Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the Metropolitan Tree Improvement Alliance 4: 47-54. ed. H.D. Gerhold, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley, CA.
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Book Section E. Roson-Szeryn´ska E. Roson-Szeryn´ska. 2004. Species resistance and tree stability. . 253-264. Warsaw Agricultural University Press .
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Article J. Bartens and P. E. Wiseman and E. T. Smiley J. Bartens and P. E. Wiseman and E. T. Smiley. 2010. Stability of landscape trees in engineered and conventional urban soil mixes. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 9: 333-338.
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Conference Andreas Detter and Erk Brudi and Frank Bischoff Andreas Detter and Erk Brudi and Frank Bischoff. 2005. Statics Integrated Methods: results from pulling tests in the past decades. Asociación Espanola de Arboricultura (Eds.): La Visión del Árbol Urbano.
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Report G. R. Johnson and B. Johnson G. R. Johnson and B. Johnson. 1999. Storm damage to landscape trees: prediction, prevention, treatment.
Report Kim D. Coder Kim D. Coder. 2001. Storm damaged trees: prevention and treatment. 8.
Report Kim D. Coder Kim D. Coder. 2007. Storm wind loads on trees.
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Report B. C. Nicoll and A. Armstrong B. C. Nicoll and A. Armstrong. 1997. Street tree root architecture and pavement damage. Arboriculture Research and Information Note 6.
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Report Xiping Wang and Robert J. Ross and R. James Barbour and John R. Erickson and John W. Forsman and McGinnis, Gary D. Xiping Wang and Robert J. Ross and R. James Barbour and John R. Erickson and John W. Forsman and McGinnis, Gary D.. 2000. Strength and stiffness assessment of standing trees using a nondestructive stress wave technique. 9.
Conference D. Gaffrey D. Gaffrey. 2000. Stress distribution in a stem of a 64-year old Douglas fir simulated with a 3D-tree and load model. Plant Biomechanics 2000. 425-431. ed. ed. H. C. Spatz and Thomas Speck, GeorgeThieme-Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.
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Book Igor Zaturecky and Albert Saravi and Isaac Chiu and Frank Lam Igor Zaturecky and Albert Saravi and Isaac Chiu and Frank Lam. 2006. Stress-wave technology for defect detection and classification of mountain pine beetle infested logs and lumber. 53. BC Foresry Innovation Investment Ltd..
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Thesis Farrell, Robert W. Farrell, Robert W.. 2003. Structural features related to tree crotch strength.
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Report K. D. Rushforth K. D. Rushforth. 1979. Summer branch drop.
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Article Heli Peltola and Seppo Kellomäki and Alpo Hassinen and Matti Lemettinen and J. Aho Heli Peltola and Seppo Kellomäki and Alpo Hassinen and Matti Lemettinen and J. Aho. 1993. Swaying of trees as caused by wind: analysis of field measurements. Silva Fennica 27: 113-126.
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Conference H. Mount and L. Hernandez and T. Goddard and S. Indrick H. Mount and L. Hernandez and T. Goddard and S. Indrick. 1999. Temperature signatures for anthropogenic soils in New York City. Classification, correlation, and management of anthropogenic soils, proceedings Nevada and California workshop 21: 137-140.
Book G. W. Hickman and E. J. Perry G. W. Hickman and E. J. Perry. 1997. Ten common wood decay fungi on landscape trees - identification handbook. Sacramento: Western Chapter, ISA.
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Article B. Kane and H. D. P. Ryan B. Kane and H. D. P. Ryan. 2004. The accuracy of formula used to assess strength loss due to decay in trees. Journal of Arboriculture 30: 347-356.
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Book Section F. LeTacon and I. F. Alvarez and D. Bouchard and B. Henrion and R. M. Jackson and S. Luff and J. I. Parlade and J. Pera and E. Stenstrom and N. Villeneuve and C. Walker F. LeTacon and I. F. Alvarez and D. Bouchard and B. Henrion and R. M. Jackson and S. Luff and J. I. Parlade and J. Pera and E. Stenstrom and N. Villeneuve and C. Walker. 1992. Variations in field response of forest trees to nursery ectomycorrhizal inoculation in Europe. Mycorrhizas in Ecosystems 119-134. ed. D. J. Read and D. H. Lewis and I. Alexander, CAB International, UK.
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Article Franz Gruber Franz Gruber. 2000. Vergleichende Meßergebnisse zur identifizierung von schadstellen im Fichtenholz (Picea abies L. Karst.) mit den Bohrmeßgeräten Teredo, Resistograph 1410 und Impulshammer-Schallmeßsystem. I. Schallmessungen und Bohrdiagramme an intaktem Holz. [Comparative. European Journal of Forest Pathology 171: 223-227.
Article Franz Gruber Franz Gruber. 2001. Vergleichende Meßergebnisse zur identifizierung von schadstellen im Fichtenholz (Picea abies L. Karst.) mit den Bohrmeßgeräten Teredo, Resistograph 1410 und Impulshammer-Schallmeßsystem. II. Bohrdiagramme an rotfaulem Holz und Disdussion. [Comparative res. European Journal of Forest Pathology 171: 1-7.
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Report Mary L. Duryea Mary L. Duryea. 1997. Wind and trees: surveys of tree damage in the Florida panhandle after hurricanes Erin and Opal.
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